Ancient Greece’s Incredible Astronomical BreakthroughsHistory
The planets go around the sun
The earliest heliocentric theory of the solar system explained that the sun was the central fire and the planets are positioned in the right order with distance around it. Aristarchus of Samos, the one who developed this idea, could have assumed that since the sun was larger than the moon or Earth, it is the central body. However, in the 16th century, Nicolaus Copernicus developed his own work about this.
Size of the moon
In a book written by Aristarchus, he attempted to calculate the distances from the sun to the moon and their sizes. He also mentioned that on the first and third quarters of the moon, the sun, moon, and Earth created a right-angled triangle. The distance he measured to the sun was too low, but the size ratio of the Earth to the moon is correct. Now, through the creation of telescopes and radar observations, we can identify the precise distance and size of the moon.
The Antikythera mechanism is the oldest mechanical calculator in the world. It was found in 1900 from an ancient shipwreck near an island in Greece called Antikythera. It has many bronze gear wheels that showed the time of lunar eclipses and the position of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.